Infertility is a condition of the reproductive system that impairs the conception of children. It affects approximately 6.1 million individuals throughout the United States. Infertility is usually diagnosed when a couple has been trying to get pregnant unsuccessfully for at least 1 year, and after 6 months if the woman is 35 years or older. You have difficulties getting pregnant (this applies to about 80% of all couples, and usually there is a combination of these problems) because:
He does not have enough sperm
You have problems with ovulation and your eggs
Your fallopian tubes are not open
Infertility is usually diagnosed when a couples has been trying to get pregnant unsuccessfully for at least 1 year, and after 6 months if the woman is 35 years or older. Getting pregnant is not always easy. The process of fertilization depends on many factors:
Healthy sperm by the man
Enough sperm by the man
Healthy eggs produced by the woman
Healthy and unblocked fallopian tubes that allow the sperm to reach the egg
The sperm's ability to fertilize the egg when they join
The ability of the fertilized egg (embryo) to become implanted in the woman's uterus
The ability of the lining of the uterus to allow implantation
Sufficient embryo quality
A healthy embryo
A healthy hormonal environment of the woman.
Infertility is usually a responsibility of both partners, one-third of infertility cases are related to the man's problems, one-third to the woman's and in one-third of cases both are responsible. In about fifteen percent of infertility cases no cause is found (unexplained Infertility).
The most common male infertility factors are if he has too few (oligospermia) or no sperm (azoospermia), and malformed sperm cells. Rarely, infertility in men can be caused by a genetic disease.
The #1 factor in women's infertility is an ovulation disorder, either there is no ovulation or the eggs are of not good enough quality. Other causes of female infertility include blocked fallopian tubes, which can occur when a woman has had pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or endometriosis. A woman's age is a major factor because the number and quality of the eggs decline as a woman gets older starting at age 30. Other reasons for female infertility include a problem with the fallopian tube (endometriosis, scarring, or other problems), and cervical issues.
Timing of Testing
The American Society of Reproductive Medicine recommends that women under 35 begin testing aftertrying to conceive (TTC) unsuccessfully for 12 months, and women over 35 should begin testing after trying to conceive for 6 months without success.